Mediating Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Organizational Performance: Empirical Analysis of Public Employees in Guadalajara, Mexico

Simon A. Andrew, Filadelfo León-Cázares


While much has been written about the importance of recruiting and retaining employees displaying voluntary and spontaneous actions, few have explored the mediating effect of citizenship behaviors on organizational performance. This study examines the direct and indirect effects of transformational leadership style, public service motivation, and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) on public organization performance. It is hypothesized that when employees perceived that a public organization is practicing a transformational leadership style (TLS), they are likely to have a favorable view on the performance of their organization, but the effect is indirect and mediated by OCB. At the same time, if employees have a strong desire to serve and improve the welfare of others, they are likely to perform beyond their job requirements and thus, likely to express a positive view on the organizational performance. A structural equation modeling was used to examine the perceptions of 1,016 public employees in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, Mexico. The results suggest that Mexican public employees display OCB (extra role behaviors) that will be associated with a better public organizational performance because of the higher levels of PSM (public service motivation). TLS are also associated to a better organizational performance as well as to perform OCBs. But we did not find the mediator role of OCB between TLS and the organizational performance. 

Palabras clave

Transformational Leadership; OCB; Organizational Performance; Public Service Motivation; Structural Equation Modeling

Texto completo:



Banki, S. (2010). Is a good deed constructive regardless of internet? organizarional citizenship behavior, motive, and group outcomes. Small Group Research, 41(3), 354-375.

Baron, M. R., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. (1995). MLQ multifactor leadership questionnaire for research: Permission set. Redwood City, CA: Mindgarden.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York, NY: Free Press.

Bennis, W. (1993). An Invented Life: Reflections on Leadership and Change. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

Brewer, G. A., Coleman Selden, S., & Facer II, R. L. (2000). Individual conceptions of public service. Public Administration Review, 60(3), 254-264.

Brief, A. P., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1986). Prosocial organizational behaviors. Academy of Management Review, 11:710–725.

Brown, K., & Coulter, P. B. (1983). Subjective and objective measures of police service delivery. Public Administration Review, 43(1), 50-58.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York, NY: Harper and Row Publishers Inc.

Cabrero, E. (2005). Between the new public management and new public governance: The case of Mexican municipalities. International Public Management Review, 6(1), 76-99.

Christensen, R. K., & Whiting, S. (2009). The role of task performance and organizational citizenship behavior in performance appraisals across sectors: Exploring the role of public service motivation. International Public Service Motivation Research Conference June 7-9. Bloomington, IN.

Churchill, G. (1999). Marketing research: Methodological foundation (7th ed.). Orlando: The Dryden Press.

Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1(1), 16-29.

Davila, A. & Elvira M. M. (2007). Psychological contracts and performance management in Mexico. International Journal of Manpower, 28(5), 383-402

Dubnick, M. (2005). Accountability and the promise of performance: In search of the mechanisms. Public Performance & Management Review, 28(3), 376-417.

Frenkel, S. J., & Sanders, K. (2007). Explaining variations in co-worker assistance in organizations. Organization Studies, 38(06), 797–823.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research 18(1):39–50.

Garson, D. G. (2011). “Factor Analysis,” from statnotes: Topics in multivariate analysis. Retrieved May 5, 2011, from

Goodsell, C. T. (2011). Mission mystique: Strengh at the institutional center. American Review of Public Administration, 41(5), 475-494.

Grindle, M. S. (1997). Divergent Cultures? When Public Organizations Perform Well in Developing Countries. World Development 25(4): 481–95.

Grindle, M. S. (2007). Going local: Decentralization, democratization, and the promise of good governance. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hennessey, J. T. (1998). “Reinventing” Government: Does Leadership Make the Difference? Public Administration Review, 58(6): 522–32.

Hodson, R. (2002). Management citizenship behavior and its consequences. Work and Occupations, 29(1), 64-96.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Ibarra, E. (2006). “Estudios organizacionales en América Latina? Transitando del centro hacia las orillas” (“Organizational studies in Latin America? Traveling from the center to the edges”) in De la Garza Toledo, E. (Ed.), Teorías Sociales y Estudios del Trabajo: Nuevos Enfoques (Social Theories and Work Studies: New Approaches), Cuadernos A. Temas de Innovación Social Anthropos, UAM-I: Mexico, pp. 88-107.

Jas, P., & Skelcher, C. (2005). Performance decline and turnaround in public organizations: A theoretical and empirical analysis. British Journal of Management, 16(3), 195–210.

Kacmar , K. M., & Ferris, G. R. (1991). Perceptions of organizational politics scale (POPS): Development and construct validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51(1), 193-205.

Katz, D. (1964). The motivational basis of the organizational behavior. Behavioral Sciences, 9(2), 131-133.

Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1966). The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley and Sons.

Kim, S. (2006). Public service motivation and organizational citizenship behavior in Korea. International Journal of Manpower, 27(8), 722 - 740.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Latané, B., Williams, K., & Harkins, S. (1979). Many hands make light the work: The causes and consequences of social loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(6), 822-832.

Lee, K., & Allen, N. J. (2002). Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance:The role of affect and cognitions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 131-142.

León-Cázares, F. (2012). Organizational citizenship behaviors among public employees. A structural equation modeling approach. Guadalajara, Mexico. Editorial Universitaria.

Little, R. J. (1988). Missing-data adjustments in large surveys. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 6(3), 287-301.

Lusthaus, C., Adrien, M. H., Anderson, G., Carden, F., & Montalvan, G. P. (2002). Organization asessment: A framework for improving performance. Retrieved April 30, 2010, from Canada. International Development Research Centre (IDRC): http:// TOPIC.html

Martínez, P. G. (2005). Paternalism as a positive form of leadership in the Latin American context: Leader benevolence, decision-making control and Human resource management practices. In M. Elvira, & A. Dávila, Managing Human Resources in Latin America: An Agenda for International Leaders (pp. 75-93). Oxford, UK: Routledge.

McKnight, P. E., McKnight, K. M., Sidani , S., & Figueredo, A. J. (2007). Missing data: A gentle introduction. New York: Guilford Press.

Miller, G. J. (2002). Managerial dilemmas: The political economy of hierarchy. New york: Cambridge University Press.

Morrison, E. W. (1994). Role definitions and organizational citizenship behavior: The importance of employee’s perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 37(6), 1543-1567.

Morrison, E. W. (1996). Organizational citizenship behavior as a critical link between HRM practices and service quality. Human Resource Management, 35(4), 493-512.

Moyado-Estrada, F. (2002). Gestión pública y calidad : Hacia la mejora continua y el rediseño de las instituciones del sector público. VII Congreso Internacional del CLAD sobre la Reforma del Estado y de la Administración Pública, (pp. 2-11). Lisboa, Portugal, 8-11 Oct. 2002.

Nielsen, T. M., Hrivnak, G. A., & Shaw, M. (2009). Organizational citizenship behavior and performance: A meta-analysis of group-level research. Small Group Research, 40(5), 555-577.

Olivos-Campos, J. R. (2003). La profesionalización en los gobiernos municipales en México. VIII Congreso Internacional del CLAD sobre Reforma y de la Administración Pública, (pp. 1-10). Panamá, 28-31 Oct. 2003.

Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It’s construct clean-up time. Human Performance, 10(2), 85-97.

Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Paarlberg, L. E., Perry, J. L., & Hondeghem, A. (2009). Motivation in public management: The call of public service. (J. L. Perry, & A. Hondeghem, Eds.) New York: Oxford University Press.

Pandey, S. K., Wright, B. E., & Moynihan, D. P. (2008). Public service motivation and interpersonal citizenship behavior in public organizations: Testing a preliminary model. International Public Management Journal, 11(1), 89-108.

Perry, J. L., & Wise, L. R. (1990). The motivational bases of public service. Public Administration Review, 50(3), 367-373.

Perry, J. L., Hondeghem, A., & Wise, L. R. (2010). Revisiting the motivacional bases of public service: Twenty years of research and an agenda for the future. Public Administration Review, 70(5), 681-690.

Podsakoff, P. M., & Mackenzie, S. B. (1994). Organizational citizenship behaviors and sales unit effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Research, 31(3), 351-363.

Podsakoff, P. M., & Mackenzie, S. B. (1997). Impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational performance: A review and suggestions for future research. Human Performance, 10(2), 133-151.

Podsakoff, P. M., Ahearne, M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 262–270.

Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26(3), 513-563.

Rainey, H. G. (1982). Reward preferences among public and private managers: In search of the service ethic. American Review of Public Administration, 16(4), 288- 302.

Rainey, H. G., & Ryu, J. E. (2004). Framing high performance and innovativeness in government: A review and assessment of research. In P. W. Ingraham, & L. Lynn (Eds.), The art of governance: Analyzing management and administration. Washington D.C: Georgetown University Press.

Scott, P. G., & Pandey, S. K. (2005). Red tape and public service motivation: Findings from a national survey of managers in state health and human services agencies. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 25(2), 155-180.

Sevi, E. (2010). Effects of organizational citizenship behavior on group performance: Results from agent - based simulation model. Journal of Modeling in Management, 5(1), 25-37.

Tierney, P., Bauer, T. N., & Potter, R. E. (2002). Extra-role behavior among mexican employees: The impact of LMX, group acceptance, and job attitudes. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10(4), 292-303.

Van Dyne L, Cummings LL, McLean & Parks J. (1995). Extra-role behaviors: in pursuit of construct and definitional clarity (a bridge over muddied waters). Research in Organizational Behavior, 17: 215-285.

Vandenabeele, W., Scheepers, S., & Hondeghem, A. (2006). Public service motivation in an international comparative perspective: The UK and Germany. Public Policy and Administration, 21(1), 13-31.

Vigoda, E. (2000). Are you being served? The responsiveness of public administration to citizens’ demands: An empirical examination in Israel. Public Administration, 78(1), 165-191.

Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2007). Leadership style, organizational politcs, and employees’ performance: An empirical examination of two competing models. Personnel Review, 36(5), 661-683.

Wang, H., Law, K. S., Hackett, R. D., Wang, D., & Chen, Z. X. (2005). Leader member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 48(3), 420-432.

Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601-617.

Wimbush , J. C., & Shepard, J. M. (1994). Toward an understanding of ethical climate: Its relationship to ethical behavior and supervisory influence. Journal of Business Ethics, 13(8), 637-647.

Wright, B. E., & Pandey, S. K. (2010). Transformational leadership in the public sector: Does structure matter? Journal of Public Administration Review and Theory, 20(1), 75-89.

Yen, H. R., Li, E. Y., & Niehoff, B. P. (2008). Do organizational citizenship behaviors lead to information system success? Testing the mediation effects of integration climate and project management. Information & Management, 45(6), 394-402.

Yoon, M. H., & Suh, J. (2003). Organizational citizenship behaviors and service quality as external effectiveness of contact employees. Journal of Business Research, 56(8), 597-611.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

Copyright (c) 2016 EconoQuantum

EconoQuantum, Año 14, Vol. 14 Núm. 1, enero-junio 2017, es una publicación semestral editada por la Universidad de Guadalajara, a través de la Maestría en Economía y el Departamento de Métodos Cuantitativos de la División de Economía del Centro Universitario de Ciencias Económico Administrativas, Periférico Norte # 799, Módulo A-305, Núcleo Los Belenes, Zapopan, Jalisco, México, CP 45100, Tel. (33) 3770 3300 Ext. 25315,, Editor responsable: Mauricio Ramírez Grajeda. Reservas de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo No. 04-2006-032411551300-203, ISSN:2007-9869 , otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor. Responsable de la última actualización de este número, Departamento de Métodos Cuantitativos, División de Economía y Sociedad, CUCEA, Periférico Norte # 799, Módulo A-305, Núcleo Los Belenes, Zapopan, Jalisco, México, CP 45100, por Sandra Ivett Portugal Padilla. Fecha de última actualización, enero de 2017, con un tiraje de un ejemplar.

Las opiniones expresadas por los autores no necesariamente reflejan la postura del editor de la publicación.

Queda estrictamente prohibida la reproducción total o parcial de los contenidos e imágenes de la publicación sin previa autorización de la Universidad de Guadalajara.


© 2016 - EconoQuantum - Centro Universitario de Ciencias Económico Administrativas

Periférico Norte No. 799, Núcleo Los Belenes, Departamento de Métodos Cuantitativos, Módulo M primer nivel, C.P. 45100, Zapopan, Jalisco, México. Tel (33) 3770 3300 Ext.25315 Email: y