Mercados y Negocios (1665-7039; 2594-0163) Vol. 1, Núm. 39 (2019) enero-junio

The shared benefit approach to competitiveness

El enfoque de los beneficios compartidos para la competitividad

Esparza Rodriguez Saúl Alfonso Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo (México) sesparza@umich.mx

Martinez Arroyo Jaime Apolinar Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo (México) jmartinez42195@gmail.com

Received: Octubre, 2018

Accepted: Enero, 2019

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to show a new approach to measure competitiveness in organizations by introducing a measurement of processes capabilities index concerning meeting needs and expectation of essential stakeholders. The argument initiates of considering a logical syllogism that relates identifying and fulfilling stakeholders needs and expectations with organization competitiveness, second compare two-way investments and benefits received among stakeholders and organizations and then proposes the use of process capability index to measure the competitiveness regarding stakeholder’s management. An example of any given company is used to explain a quantitative approach and the use of a calculated cpk index to measure organizations capabilities regarding shared interest. The proposition shows a proposed general model of equilibrium in the shared benefit that can explain a quantitative approach of the capacity of the organization to manage stakeholders.

Keywords: Stakeholders; shared benefits; competitiveness.

Clasificación JEL: M100

RESUMEN

El presente artículo presenta un enfoque para medir la competitividad en las organizaciones al introducir una medición del índice de las capacidades de procesos relacionadas con atender las necesidades y expectativas de grupos de interés esenciales. Se considera un silogismo lógico que relaciona la identificación y satisfacción de las expectativas y necesidades de las partes interesadas con la competitividad de la organización, después de eso se compara en dos direcciones tanto la inversión y beneficio recibido entre la organización y sus stakeholders, después propone el uso de un indicador de capacidad de procesos para medir la competitividad relacionada la gestión de partes interesadas. Un ejemplo de una compañía dada es utilizado para explicar un enfoque cuantitativo y el uso de un indicador cpk para medir las capacidades de las organizaciones en términos de intereses compartidos. La proposición muestra un modelo general propuesto de equilibrio en los beneficios compartidos que puede explicar la capacidad de la organización para gestionar grupos de interés.

Palabras clave: Partes interesadas; beneficios compartidos; competitividad

JEL Code: M100

INTRODUCTION

It is often said that organizations are part of human beings since each person is born when a state agency ratify our existence. Also, when people study, have access to goods and services, get married, and even when we die, organizations play and an important and crucial part in those processes (Pfeffer, 1997).

From a literary point of view, an organization is conceived typically as a structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed on objectives (Rafaeli, 1996). A broader concept defines it as a collectivity with a relative boundary, a normative order, ranks of authority, communication systems and membership-coordinating systems… that are usually related to a set of goals (Hofmann, 1997)

A crucial aspect of organizations around the world is the human rationality part, as a basis to decision making that affects the conformation of such social organism, because any rational choices between alternatives involves a complete description of the possibility consequential on each option and a comparison of these possibilities, where there are practical limits to human rationality (Simon, 1994).

In that sense, the organizational theory has a history that is relatively brief, where changes are perceived for some as evolution, and some authors have labeled the different phases as “rational”, “natural” and “open systems” theories as a framework to understand this multidisciplinary theory better (Seashore, 2015).

Nevertheless, factors such as changes in the way people interact with businesses, global connections and an increasing use of technologies are indicators that show the need for new approaches that better explain the role that organizations play in an era of sustainability, social responsibility, and corporate accountability; all of that represents an opportunity to explore significant inner and outer relations that are relevant and descriptive of the complexity in the organizational life

In addition, some new perspectives in theory of organization point out the importance of stakeholders in the development and evolution of these entities, defined as any group or individual who is affected by or it can affect the achievement of organization´s objectives (Freeman & McVea, 2001), whose can be defined by their attributes such as power to bring about the desired outcome, legitimacy in a normative core to organizations, and urgency for immediate attention (Mitchell, Agle & Wood, 1997).

Following that line of thought, Cabanelas Omil (2015) highlights the need for a new theory that represents better the meaning and significance of organizations that help to understand the organization nowadays, by putting forward a cognitive proximity defined by a function that includes crucial factors for organization as entities (base form of the social organism), government and context (multidimensional environment).

Since the formation and stability of organizations rely on the human rationality of individuals who make decisions to satisfy their own needs and use this rational approach in each interaction with the organization, it is also true that organizations exist as long as each participant is willing to maintain this relationship going, and that could be a reason that explains the reason why customers change among organizations and products; workers change among enterprises and jobs, stockholders change among public firms and profit schemes, owners decide to sell or maintain regarding having the best benefit out of a company.

Correspondingly, when looking for the best option, a shared benefit approach proposes an explanation focused in the continuous exchange that maintains an organization running and functioning, because, according to the social sciences, human behavior is the result of a dynamic balance of forces working in opposing directions (Burnes, 2004; Kritsonis, 2005).

If we consider that organizations could be defined as a group of resources, both tangible and intangible, coordinated by a system in order to achieve the most significant results possible with the minimum of resources, which lead to people to make higher results in comparison of doing things separately, that conception falls short to explain continuous movement of participants (both internal and external) in terms of choosing an organization to satisfy needs and expectations instead of another.

That mentioned argument can be related to humans looking to obtain the most significant possible benefit out of an investment made, which can have any sorts of nature depending on the kind of stakeholder, for instance, employees exchange talent and time for a salary, customers exchange money for a differentiated good that satisfies a specific need, owners exchange investment for earnings, government exchange public investment for taxes payers, and so on, and that interaction can be described as a shared benefit interaction that is a basis in organizations life and endurance.

Additional to the previous idea, it is essential to consider that new tendencies in the way societies perform represents breakpoints for organizations to cope with new conditions in economic, social and environmental scenarios, having as a centerpiece of organizational life the multiple interactions resulting of relationships inside and outside the organization.

Consequently, the present article set an example regarding how a “shared benefit approach” to competitiveness would operate, considering both internal and external stakeholders of a given company, taking into consideration a conceptual explanation of the shared benefit relationship among interest parties, and also a positivist approach to operationalize significant variables as wel

In that sense, the methodology used is referred to analyze relationships of the participants in an organization, taking as a base the identification of the capacities of any social organism concerning managing needs and expectations of their stakeholders that could be translated in two factors such as expected benefit and investment made by each participant.

CONTEXTO

In terms of the goals of the present article, it is of great importance to highlight the interaction among stakeholders in organizations as a factor that is expressed in most of the organizational theory in history, and by reviewing those works is possible to trace a shared benefit approach as a common factor that defines the permanence and development of organizations due to the convenient exchange in terms of benefits and investments made, with a distinctive interpretation and concept about people that integrate organization, considering economic beings for classical and social beings for neoclassical, to better explain a focus on the interrelation among stake beings for shared value approach in terms of constant exchanging.

Likewise, the analyzed approaches included in the present work considering the shared benefit underlying each theoretical proposal, are related to some approaches in the general theory of management such as scientific management, classic theory, bureaucratic theory, human relationship theory, systems theory, socio-technical theory, neoclassic theory, organization development and stakeholder theory, presenting the interaction between benefit-investment in each of the mentioned general idea.

Scientific management: The fundamentals of scientific management of Taylor had the principal object of securing the maximum prosperity for the employer coupled for the maximum success for each employee, by implementing a working system based on the highest state of excellence. A shared benefit stakeholder could be defined through each worker working at his very best advantage at his best speed, producing the most in the least time with the least resources, resulting in benefits for both company and employee (Taylor, 1911).

A shared benefit factor interpreted based on this theory can be understood regarding significant productivity for major earnings, in money earning focused on the productive process, so people could stay working with a given company for a long time, receiving a salary that represents fairly the effort made in the workplace.

Classic theory: The general principles of management is focused on how management interacts with personnel, by division of work, authority, and responsibility, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interest, remuneration of personnel, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability of tenure of personnel, initiative, concept of line and staff and unity of personal (Fayol, 1930).

The shared benefit factor interpreted for inner stakeholders is based on organization and reliability in the structure meanwhile, owners can have a controlled system of producing goods and benefits

Bureaucratic theory: Max Weber´s formulation of the core concept in this theory entails defining and redefining institutional goals resolving the conflicts over the exercise of authority, and dealing with the consequences of policy fluctuations, which leads to the need of applying rules and control over procedures for an increasingly complex society (Weber, Parsons & Henderson, 1964).

Shared benefits relations for employees exchanged stability in work and authority in the process for a system technically precise and controlled for the owners.

Human relationship theory: This theory identifies the importance of human factor in organizations, where workers were recognized as having social needs and interests such as they not only can be regarded as the economically motivated automatons envisaged in other theories (Rose, 2005). The extra production needs have an essential and decisive impact in productiveness and thus, in companies' capability to reach goals, but still stand for a theory that contributes to efficiency (Mayo, 1945).

The shared benefits factor is focused in identify workers needs and expectations and fulfill them as a way to maintain companies’ productivity and generate profits for owners.

Systems theory: A interdisciplinary theory about every system in nature, in society and many scientific domains that allowed to investigate phenomena from a holistic approach, with a shift in attention from the part to the whole, where the individual properties and the single elements become indistinct, and it is necessary to apply a global vision to underline a company's functioning (Mele, Pels, & Polese, 2010)

If we consider a from a multidisciplinary point of view present when we take into account the interactions of all systems and subsystems that are part of organization´s life, applied to cybernetics, biology, and sociology among others (Von Bertalanffy, 1969; Mele, Pels, & Polese, 2010).

The shared benefits could be located in the interaction of needs and satisfiers among systems, an understanding in an atomist approach where a system joint whit another in a certain period depends on the quality of exchange between them

Socio-technical theory: Originally coined by Emery and Trist in 1960, describes systems that involve a complex interaction between humans, machines and environmental aspects of the work systems, where all of these factors need to be considered when developing such systems, with five critical characteristics of open socio-technical systems: interdependent parts, adaptation, and pursuit of goals in external environments, goals can be achieved by more than one means and joint optimization of technical and social systems (Baxterm et al., 2011).

In this case, shared benefit can be traced to measure needs among individuals who are part of the intern or extern systems, because even in machine design and integration in the company´s productive processes there is a sensitive part in what are the purpose of the machine in terms of human needs to do work more efficiently, and thus, the necessity of invest in human capital to obtain skills to operate and integrate. Regarding shared benefits, using machines require the development of human capabilities and integration to environmental regulations and politics

Neoclassic theory: This approach made a significant contribution to an understanding of human behavior at work and as a part of organizations, focusing on the overwhelming role of human factor in industry, recognizing organizations as social systems that are subject to the sentiments and cultural pattern of the members and group dynamics, leadership, motivation, participation, etc. (Islam & Azam, 2013).

In relation with the former idea, shared benefit of all the individuals that are part of an organization can represent a new focus of the social organism as an integral systems consisting in formal and informal structure, by understanding that every interaction is a representation of an exchange of benefit and investments, formal and informal, and that maintain an equilibrium is essential to achieve results. Also, it can help to understand human nature by identifying and foment the path to attain personal expectations by belonging to any organization.

Organization development: Defined as an effort planned, organization-wide and managed from the top to increase effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the processes using behavioral-science knowledge, where people are generally open and confronting with a high energy in conflicts about tasks and projects, and relatively little energy spent in clashing over interpersonal difficulties, in an organization that is understood as an open system whit a shared value and management strategy to support it (Gallos, 2006).

Thus, shared benefit works out by providing the information needed regarding understanding organizational change not only by taking in account the participation and ideas of all the people but also how well are their expectative met in an environment where the structure of an organization depends on multiple factors. It is crucial to recognize human nature and the need to achieve personal goals that not always have to do with the overall organization, nor just economic or social beings but motivated by a particular interest to obtain the highest benefit out of the interaction with others.

Stakeholders theory: This theory suggests that managers must formulate and implement processes which satisfy all and only those groups who have a stake in the business (Freeman & McVea, 2001), the central task is to manage and integrate the relationships and interest of shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, communities and other groups in a way that ensures the long-term of the firm. It is widely used and promoted by management systems such as ISO and Corporate Social Responsibility, and that is a reason why in practice it is often related to ethical management.

A shared benefit variable is focused on making better decisions considering the needs of stakeholders and integrate those expectations into a way to objectively evaluate organizations performance concerning capabilities to meet the basic requirements of interest parties.

Considering the included approaches, organizations are usually perceived as a group of resources, both tangible and intangible, coordinated by a system to achieve the most significant results possible with the minimum of resources, which lead to people to make higher results in comparison of doing things separately. The structure of organizations considers a group of people working along together to obtain an objective that is perceived as something valuable for each participant and the whole group as well while interacting with external interest parties that have some influence in the practices of any given company at achieving some given goals.

Because a highly detailed analysis of the particular factors that have an influence in how people respond to their contribution to organizations, traditional ideas of formal and informal association of persons are commonly not sufficient to explain the dynamics of social organism in modern life, considering that the overall conditions in the industry could change and also the willingness of people to participate as well if the relationship with the organization is not coping with the participants expectations and goals.

Now, the organizational theory contemplates organizations that are structured in a given way that allowed them to work in the search of a specific goal, but fall short in terms of explaining how the organizational change is making an impact in people´s lives, both professional and personal, where aspects such as subjective perceptions play an important role in what the people consider as a factor to maintaining the relationship with a given organization or take another path.

In that sense, a “shared benefit” approach can be understood as a more specific explanation of the quality of the interactions among individuals in the organizations, measured by an interchange between interest and investments in every internal and external relationship present in organizational dynamics, and as a result, maintaining a structure that enforces capability of an organization to produce goods and services acceptable regarding quality and price for a defined market segment that allowed a company to make a profit in the industry that it belongs, and in the same line, considering such “capability” as the result of a process of producing the right goods with specific characteristics which could satisfy in a certain degree a real need of the customers, where is crucial that the organization must make the right decision at the right time in their production processes.

A NEW PERSPECTIVE: SHARED BENEFIT APPROACH TO COMPETITIVENESS

Firstly, it is vital to include definitions about competitiveness, a concept that was coined in the 1970s, that can be traced back in the work of various authors and approach, from considering an adaptation of products to the market and competition requirements in terms of product range, quality, price as well as optimal sales channels and methods of promotion, and also in terms of share in the competitive market, generation of wealth being the precondition of high wages, and even the ability to produce and sell products and services of superior quality and lower cost than domestic or international competitors (Adamkiewicz-Drwiłło, 2002; Ajitabh, Momaya, 2004; Bobba et al., 1971; cited by Siudek & Zawojska, 2014).

Similarly, the Asociación Española de Contabilidad y Administración (2010) defines the concept as the capacity of an organization to obtain and maintain systematically comparative advantages that allowed to reach, hold and improve a designated position in the socioeconomic environment in which operates (Aguilasocho, Galeana & Guerra, 2016).

In the same line, some authors have defined competitiveness as the ability for innovation, the management of internal and external factors, reputation and strategy of the company, flexibility, quality and market adaptability, and even an ability to design, produce and market goods of superior quality compared to competitors in the industry (Hamel & Prahalad, 1989; Barney, 1991; D´Cruz & Rugman, 1992; cited by Vargas-Barraza, Sanchez-Gutierrez, Mayorga-Salamanca, & Espinoza-Mercado, 2016).

Considering the former ideas, to be and stay competitive in any industry, it is essential to manage the resources of any company to be able to cope with the conditions of any industry, where any given manager must rely on objective information, obtained by collecting, analyzing and interpreting information of customers and potential clients. This mentioned factor can also be translated and expanded to attend the needs of related interest parties, which could provide insights on the whole process where companies must make crucial decisions to achieve goals in the most efficient way possible.

In that manner, “shared benefits” can be explained as a perspective that centers on understanding the various interactions among companies and individuals, both internal and external, identifying essential factors that affects and interest participants and using that information to transform needs into guidelines to measure the capability of the process to attend a broad spectrum of needs and at the same time, obtaining a benefit for the organization itself.

This approach has a base on the importance of designing and measuring process taking into consideration decision-making process based in fulfilling needs of actors that have a stake in the company´s activities, and thus are essential for the organization.

Considering the former situation, analysis and decision making based in “Shared benefits” can be applied generally to understand better conditions related to good or bad performance, high or low rotation in personnel, integrated activities interrelated to vertical and horizontal nexus, among other situations regarding competitiveness in a holistic way based in simultaneous relations.

In that sense, one of the leading managerial capabilities of administrators searches to the understanding conceptually the interrelations that are part of daily activities in companies, where specific actors engage with a relationship present in one or more of activities related to the productive process of companies, affecting inputs, outputs, and operation as a whole.

Regarding logical analysis, the syllogism that supports the approach could be defined as follows:

- Organizations that have management process fulfilling needs and expectations are more competitive.

- Stakeholder management is a management process

- Organizations that have stakeholder management fulfilling needs and expectations are more competitive.

The first sentence comprises the conception of an organization as a set of combined resources and human capital that functions following guidelines delimited by a given system and because of that, can be measured by some indexes that compare outputs with inputs to better understand how the company is doing with achieving goals and objectives.

The second sentence considers that stakeholder’s management is part of the processes that managers need to fulfill in their primary activities oriented to design, implement, follow and evaluate a set of rules that allow to identify an essential group of interest and engage those interest parties in the managerial process.

Conclusion proposes that stakeholder management can lead to a more competitive state, understood as the capacity of a company to produce goods and services that can satisfy a specific need in the market.

If we take into account that stakeholders that are usually mentioned in the bibliography, it is possible to identify a constant contact among stakeholders that could redefine the concept of organization as a steady interaction among stakeholders to obtain a specific benefit that is the most desirable and possible outcome compared to the investment made, in short, it represents a valuation between what does the participant do and the quality of the return obtained.

As an example, the following figure presents an argument of a possible interaction among participants, where is possible to notice that investment in one side is the benefit of the other:

Table 1 . A hermeneutics view of Shared benefits among Stakeholders interactions

To better understand the previous table, it is essential to consider a factor regarding simultaneous interaction among parties, where the organization is represented by relationships that made commitments possible, and so, a deeper understanding of how each relation can show a better insight of the participant structure in any organization.

Employees: People who work in a subordinated job under the instructions and guidelines established in a company expect to receive a remuneration for their time and skills invested in performing an activity of certain complexity under a predefined standard, as well as work benefits, form the company, and at the same time, organizations gain profits from capital gain and talent (Forné, 2015).

Managers: Also employees and inner stakeholders, the goals persecuted are different from other employees, mainly because of higher responsibility on the effectiveness of the organization, results of the companies are a base to evaluate how well the job is performed, so utilities are significantly important to weight the balance in the interaction with what the company is investing in this category of stakeholders (García, Marín & Martinez, 2006).

Owners: Profitability is the most obvious factor for a person or group to invest capital in a business, gaining a profit via making a direct investment in strengthening a company capability to create value for a specific sector with specific needs, aiming to have cost low and higher sales as possible. The interaction with the organization and other related stakeholders is marked by attending not only assets but also opportunities for the human factor to develop and thrive (García, Marín & Martinez, 2006)

Banks: According to Banco de México, the relationship among companies and banks are based in a benefit represented by the amount of credit the company receives and any given bank is willing to lend, but also it is vitally important for any enterprise to maintain and demonstrate an adequate behavior in paying the credits (Banco de México, 2015), which in turn is the principal line of business for the commercial banks around the world.

Society: Access to services and products, and also to job opportunities and infrastructure can count as some of the most significant benefits this interesting part received, and in return, it represents a source of consumptions of considerable size. On the other hand, a poor relationship with the community results in losing market and as a result, a level of competitiveness in the short term .

Clients: Depending on the type of client and what is looking for to satisfy a necessity, the dual relation between investment and benefit could be marked considering value creation. Identifying a specific sector within the industry, with specific needs and the amount of money that is willing to pay for a given good, the interaction will focus in transactions of value against price, as well as lower cost against economies of scales. In both cases, it is supposed that the competitive enterprise is making a profit, while clients and customers are getting what expected for the money expended (Porter, 1985).

Suppliers: A central part of the supplier chain in any company, a trade-off relation covers returns on a case in win-win relationship, which can lead to a healthy and long-time relationship, infrastructure improvement and logistics efficiency (Torres, Felipe & Arias, 2013), while the supplier can count on profitability and certainty granted by a good business relationship

Government: In a democratic region, political and governmental institutions are a significant player to promote and facilitate competitiveness via policies and specializes programs, representing a factor of considerable importance to provide access for companies and entrepreneurs to resources in order to increase their business scope, oriented to grow or diversify commercial offer, and in turn receiving social positioning and a healthy relationship with society (Matos, 2005).

In the literature, the process of managing for stakeholders include identification, engagement, and implementation of stakeholder´s suggestions, but it is also essential to translate stakeholders needs to something that can be measurable and traceable in the processes evaluation of the company, and for this paper use, that will be understood as a specification limit to calculate the capability process index.

DATA AND METHODOLOGY

To understand better the shared benefit using a positivist approach, one relevant measure of processes capability is the cpk index that is a measurement primarily used in management of quality systems, which is a useful metric both for variables (quantitative approach) and for attributes (qualitative approach) (Pérez, Pelaez & Carrión, 2014), used in a broader application for a statistical process control technique that allowed manager to better understand how the process is responding to specifications, typically used in the production area, and lately used not only to products but also to services, so it could apply to intern and extern clients, and of course, other relevant participants as well.

Taking into consideration the practical use of this measurement based in basic statistics, it can show how capable is a process in terms of comply a given specification, generally what the inner or outer customer considers as characteristics of the product or service to satisfy a specific need, and that need can be a measurement, height, weight, color, shape, time delivery, price and another kind of features, specified as follows:

It is crucially important to identify and understand the interest in the form of perceived benefits of all the stakeholders related to an organization, traduce those needs into specification limits and then calculate the capability of the company to cope with them.

Broader use of this statistical technique can show the capability of all the process of the organization related to attend a stakeholder need and thus obtain a benefit as a consequence, considering the following essential assumptions:

1. All the participants considered have power, legitimization, and urgency over the organization processes (defined by stakeholder theory as ultimate stakeholders) (Mitchell et al., 1997)

2. There is a constant interaction among stakeholders

3. Some stakeholders have interests that conflict with others interests.

Measurement of processes capabilities shows that a process that has a result equivalent to 1.33 or higher are capable of meeting expectations of a specific client of that process outcome and less than 0.33, as a result, shows an incapability to respond to specifications required.

Now, considering a situation where any given organization has to adequate its processes considering various participants in the following example:

- A company that produces bottles needs to answer to stakeholders to ensure competitiveness in the long run, so it maps the stakeholders needs and calculates process capabilities.

- Specifications limits would be obtained by gaining information regarding industry averages, business environmental conditions and society expectations, where an average salary, profits, credit rates of interest, level of employment, expected payment time and infrastructure conditions are available as data obtained based in any specific industry or market survey.

An organization that identifies relevant participant as ultimate stakeholders could make use of data and different kind of surveys to determine the expectations of those actors in terms of quantitative limits or “lower and upper specification limits” (LSL and USL) and apply cpk calculation according to [1].

Table 2. A positivist view on Shared benefits using a Process capabilities matrix

Now, if we consider the former results of cpk index for the mentioned given company as a base to make a graphic representation of the capabilities of an organization in meeting participants expectations, the organizational structure will look as follows:

Figure 1 . Structure of organization in terms of shared benefit Cpk index in table 1 (size of the circle corresponds to cpk index)

On the other hand, representation of a proposed econometric model based on correlations among variables can be used to analyze the relation of the organization with the interest parties and a level of competitiveness based in a shared benefit approach:

The model includes all the process related to stakeholders and can be used as described only if all of the elements are considered as definitive to the company´s activities.

This empiric representation shows that it is crucial to relate organization capabilities not only to customers or vertical nexuses such as suppliers and distribution chains but also to another kind such as society and government, because without the support of the definitive stakeholders, companies cannot reach their goals, or it will be very costly in time and resources and ultimately can have an adverse effect on competitiveness against other companies.

Measurement of the process is not such a new topic but integrating stakeholders to the management of organizations by understanding the relationship between processes capabilities and making decisions is essential to the sustainability of companies in the long run since choices is a permanent and strategic part of management.

Figure 3 . A proposed general model of equilibrium in shared benefits

In concordance with Ireland and Aoki (1985), whose work regarding the cooperative game theory of the firm proposes that a manager can be perceived as some kind of referee in situations that can represent potential conflict between workers and shareholders for the expropriation of the organizational rent of the firm, a relevant factor in this potential situation of conflict is that either of both parties could withdraw their collaborative share and thus, substantially reduce or even eliminate the profitability of the company, the shared benefit approach can be understood as an expanded cooperative theory, but not in terms of just cooperation but also as a whole and constant interaction during the life of any organization.

Following the idea, one of the main components in the general activities of a manager is to identify key stakeholders and their needs, traduce them into a quantitative language to compare with the process indicators, and decide in terms of the level of fulfillment for such needs how the company is doing, and take decisions oriented to better manage the interest parties that affect the company performance in the industry that it belongs.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Comparisons between the actual process capabilities result and the desired Cpk (>1.33) shows that in this specific example most of the stakeholder´s management processes are not working well for the company, and some of them show a poor performance between the company and the critical group of interest included in the analysis.

The practical meaning of this is that the company is missing to fulfill the needs of various important stakeholders that affect its productivity and thus, grade of competitiveness is not good enough to ensure that the organization could be perceived as sustainable neither profitable in the short future.

Process capabilities matrix provides meaningful insights to managers to adjust the way an organization is working, reconnect what the process is doing with what the inner and outer clients are looking for and make decisions about improve processes in relation with stakeholders needs and expectations.

Managers who are occupied in strategy could use this approach to better understand the real situation with the work that is being done in the company and couple process output with the desired input of the clients, gaining a benefit from them in the process and contribute to the sustainability of organizations.

CONCLUDING COMMENTS

The focus of this work is to understand that the analysis of the relationship between investment and benefit can explain the reasons why some stakeholders stay in interaction with an organization and some others do not, where the shared benefit is perceived as equilibrated among interests, the relation continues, while a change in that balance can affect the relationship and even terminate it.

From a management style point of view, the shared benefit approach is not meant for universal use, since it is of great importance that companies and management have access to information and commitment to generating the data correspondent to processes in the most objective way possible.

Managers and leaders have to consider the best choices possible with the information at hand, and thinking about shared benefits could offer a glimpse of why some relationship functions while others do not.

A statistical control process is a tool that it has been used for a long time to improve the quality of goods and products in several organizations; an is a reliable technique to validate the capacity of the productive process in a company. The present work proposes a further use of this statistical analysis applied to all the process related to an organization that can affect how the needs of diverse stakeholders are met.

Making decisions based on reliable information is a characteristic of systems that can adapt for the changes in industry, but the data must consider all the definitive stakeholders because it is highly possible that two or more stakeholders have interest in conflict, at the same time and even the organization itself is aiming to obtain a higher benefit from a counterpart which is not willing to make any concessions, and negotiation process must have to gravitate to understand the benefit that the other part is trying to obtain for the investment made, and encounter a measurable equilibrium point to decide if the relationship with that specific stakeholder is worth it and the economic cost of change it to another option taking shared benefit approach into consideration.

Because of decision making process is an essential part of the contribution of managerial work, and also one of the most delicate, it is critical to consider all the factors possible that can affect the outcome of the decision made, and that situation need to take objectively into account the interaction of the interest parties and their direct or indirect effect in the company’s performance.

Although the introduction of a capability process index in process related not only with the production of tangible products but also services is not something that can be considered as revolutionary, is it noticeable that nowadays the access for information is noticeable practical for administrators of different size and scope of organizations, and that opens a wide range of possibilities to rethink how the manager interacts with the interest parties, measuring at what extent the companies have a healthy and convenient relation with such stakeholders

As a result, combining the actual reaching possibilities made possible by technologies of information and communication with measurement process to understand better the company´s performance in the market result in a valuable tool to size the level of accomplishment in any given company

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Special thanks to Consejo Nacional de la Ciencia y la Tecnología (Conacyt) and the Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo (UMSNH) for his support and facilitation of diverse resources for this research article.

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MERCADOS y Negocios, Año 20, No. 39, (enero – junio, 2019), es una publicación semestral editada por la Universidad de Guadalajara, a través del Departamento de Mercadotecnia y Negocios Internacionales, del Centro Universitario de Ciencias Económico Administrativas (CUCEA). Con domicilio en Periférico Norte 799, módulo G-306, núcleo Los Belenes, Zapopan, Jalisco, México, C.P. 45100., Telefono 33-3770-3343 ext. 25068, http://www.revistascientificas.udg.mx/index.php/MYN, correo electrónico: revistamercadosynegocios@cucea.udg.mx. Editor responsable: José Sánchez Gutiérrez. Reservas de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo 04-2016-111115025800-203, ISSN electrónico: 2594-0163, otorgados por el Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor. Responsable de la última actualización de este número: Departamento de Mercadotecnia y Negocios Internacionales del Centro Universitario de Ciencias Económico Administrativas (CUCEA), con domicilio en Periférico Norte 799, módulo G-306, núcleo Los Belenes, Zapopan, Jalisco, México, C.P. 45100, por Tania Elena González Alvarado. Fecha de la última modificación enero de 2019, con un tiraje de un ejemplar.

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